What Are Radial Tires?

Radial tires are a specific type of tire construction characterized by their unique design, where plies (strong cords made from various materials) are arranged at a 90-degree angle to the direction of travel.

This radial arrangement of plies, which run from the tire’s center, contributes to several performance advantages. Numerous vehicle types, including passenger cars, SUVs, light trucks, trailers, and heavy equipment, widely use them.

History and Evolution

The concept of radial tires dates back to the early 20th century, with the first designs patented in 1914 and 1916. However, these early patents did not lead to actual products.

The real breakthrough came in 1946 when Michelin engineers innovated by adding an extra thread to the existing diagonal structure, creating the radial tire as we know it today. This innovation led to better grip and endurance for tires. Michelin’s development and commercialization of radial tires in 1946 marked the beginning of their widespread use​​​​​​.

Construction and Anatomy of Radial Tires

Radial tires consist of multiple layers including rubber, fabric, and sometimes steel. The cords or plies are made of materials such as polyester, nylon, or steel which are crucial for tire strength and stability. In radial tires, these cords are perpendicularly arranged, which is a distinct contrast to the diagonal arrangement in bias-ply tires.

There are two main types of radial tires: belted and non-belted. Belted radial tires include an additional layer of reinforcement (steel, fiberglass, or Kevlar) between the tread and the cords, enhancing tread stability, puncture resistance, and tire life. Non-belted radial tires, while lacking this extra reinforcement, offer benefits like lower cost and lighter weight, contributing to better fuel efficiency​​.

Radial vs Bias-Ply Tires

The primary difference between radial and bias-ply tires lies in their construction. Radial tires have cords running perpendicular to each other with either steel or cording belts, whereas bias-ply tires feature nylon belts and overlapping polyester cords in a crisscross pattern. Radial tires are famous for excellent traction, smoother rides, and better handling, but they are expensive and difficult to repair.

Bias-ply tires offer better load capacity and puncture resistance, particularly advantageous for heavy-duty and off-road applications, but they have less traction than radial tires​​.

Benefits and Drawbacks of Radial Tires


  • Wide selection in tire styles and sizes.
  • Superior handling and performance.
  • Better road manners and ride comfort.
  • Efficient heat dissipation.
  • Optimum traction in various conditions.


  • More complex and expensive to manufacture.
  • Sidewall damage susceptibility.
  • Generally more expensive than bias-ply tires​​.

Do All Radial Tires Have Steel Belts?

Not all radial tires have steel belts. While many radial tires, particularly passenger radials include steel belts for reinforcement, some radial tires may use different materials like fiberglass belts, Kevlar (a high-strength synthetic fiber), or polyester. Steel belts, typically made of steel wire mesh, are common in radial tires and contribute to various benefits like improved durability, heat resistance, and traction.

Is It Difficult to Repair Tire Sidewalls in Radial Tires?

Repairing the sidewall in radial tires is particularly difficult due to the construction and function of the sidewall itself. In radial tires, the sidewalls are flexible. They absorb road irregularities and provide a smoother ride. This flexibility, however, makes them more susceptible to damage and less amenable to effective repair.

Any damage to the tire sidewall can compromise its structural integrity. As it continuously flexes during driving, any repair is unlikely to hold and is prone to failure. This risk makes sidewall repair in radial tires both difficult and unsafe.

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